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Donate Login Sign up Search for courses, skills, and videos. Arts and humanities. Expand your knowledge of the United States's rich history, and review your learning using our AP-aligned practice questions.


US history The United States of America is a nation with a rich history and a noble goal: government of the people, by the people, for the people. Its citizens' struggle to achieve that goal is a dramatic story stretching over hundreds of years. Worlds collide : US history.

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Colonial America : US history. The road to revolution : US history. The early republic : US history. The Civil War era : US history. The Gilded Age : US history. Rise to world power : US history. The postwar era : US history. The modern era present : US history. Surveys of history : US history. Interactions among branches of government : US government and civics.

Civil liberties and civil rights : US government and civics. American political ideologies and beliefs : US government and civics. Political participation : US government and civics. American civics : US government and civics. Primary documents : US government and civics. Global prehistory: 30, B.

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Ancient Mediterranean: B. Early Europe and Colonial Americas: C. Later Europe and Americas: C. Africa: C. South, East, and Southeast Asia: B. Grammar Grammar is the collection of rules and conventions that makes languages go.

This section is about Standard American English, but there's something here for everyone. Parts of speech: the noun : Grammar. Parts of speech: the verb : Grammar.Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissancethe term contrasted with divinity and referred to what is now called classicsthe main area of secular study in universities at the time. Today, the humanities are more frequently contrasted with natural, and sometimes social sciencesas well as professional training.

The humanities use methods that are primarily criticalor speculativeand have a significant historical element [2] —as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural sciences[2] yet, unlike the sciences, it has no central discipline. Scholars in the humanities are "humanity scholars" or humanists. The Renaissance scholars and artists were also called humanists. Some secondary schools offer humanities classes usually consisting of literatureglobal studies and art. Human disciplines like historyfolkloristicsand cultural anthropology study subject matters that the manipulative experimental method does not apply to—and instead mainly use the comparative method [6] and comparative research.

Anthropology is the holistic "science of humans", a science of the totality of human existence. The discipline deals with the integration of different aspects of the social scienceshumanities and human biology.

In the twentieth century, academic disciplines have often been institutionally divided into three broad domains. The natural sciences seek to derive general laws through reproducible and verifiable experiments. The humanities generally study local traditions, through their historyliteraturemusicand artswith an emphasis on understanding particular individuals, events, or eras.

The social sciences have generally attempted to develop scientific methods to understand social phenomena in a generalizable way, though usually with methods distinct from those of the natural sciences. The anthropological social sciences often develop nuanced descriptions rather than the general laws derived in physics or chemistry, or they may explain individual cases through more general principles, as in many fields of psychology.

Anthropology like some fields of history does not easily fit into one of these categories, and different branches of anthropology draw on one or more of these domains. It is an area that is offered at most undergraduate institutions. Eric Wolf described sociocultural anthropology as "the most scientific of the humanities, and the most humanistic of the sciences". The goal of anthropology is to provide a holistic account of humans and human nature.

This means that, though anthropologists generally specialize in only one sub-field, they always keep in mind the biological, linguistic, historic and cultural aspects of any problem. Since anthropology arose as a science in Western societies that were complex and industrial, a major trend within anthropology has been a methodological drive to study peoples in societies with more simple social organization, sometimes called "primitive" in anthropological literature, but without any connotation of "inferior".

The quest for holism leads most anthropologists to study a people in detail, using biogenetic, archaeological, and linguistic data alongside direct observation of contemporary customs. It is possible to view all human cultures as part of one large, evolving global culture. These dynamic relationships, between what can be observed on the ground, as opposed to what can be observed by compiling many local observations remain fundamental in any kind of anthropology, whether cultural, biological, linguistic or archaeological.

Archaeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifactsarchitecturebiofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes.

Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. Archaeology is thought of as a branch of anthropology in the United States, [12] while in Europe, it is viewed as a discipline in its own right, or grouped under other related disciplines such as history.

Classicsin the Western academic tradition, refers to the studies of the cultures of classical antiquitynamely Ancient Greek and Latin and the Ancient Greek and Roman cultures. Classical studies is considered one of the cornerstones of the humanities; however, its popularity declined during the 20th century. Nevertheless, the influence of classical ideas on many humanities disciplines, such as philosophy and literature, remains strong.

History is systematically collected information about the past. When used as the name of a field of studyhistory refers to the study and interpretation of the record of humanssocietiesinstitutions, and any topic that has changed over time.

Traditionally, the study of history has been considered a part of the humanities. In modern academiahistory is occasionally classified as a social science. While the scientific study of language is known as linguistics and is generally considered a social science[13] a natural science [14] or a cognitive science[15] the study of languages is still central to the humanities.

A good deal of twentieth-century and twenty-first-century philosophy has been devoted to the analysis of language and to the question of whether, as Wittgenstein claimed, many of our philosophical confusions derive from the vocabulary we use; literary theory has explored the rhetorical, associative, and ordering features of language; and historical linguists have studied the development of languages across time.

Literature, covering a variety of uses of language including prose forms such as the novelpoetry and dramaalso lies at the heart of the modern humanities curriculum. College-level programs in a foreign language usually include study of important works of the literature in that language, as well as the language itself.Josiah Ober, a professor of classics and of political science, discusses how a reexamination of democracy's ancient origins sheds light on the values and limitations of democracy in contemporary politics.

Professor of History and Stanford Humanities Center Director Caroline Winterer defines the American enlightenment as a series of cultural, artistic, and intellectual transformations. Stanford Professor of English and Comparative Literature Roland Greene makes the case that studying poetry helps us better understand the human experience.

Professor of English Paula Moya discusses how reading multicultural literature can teach us how our world is shaped by race. Professor of History Paula Findlen views the Italian Renaissance as a period that reinvents and reforms all disciplines of ancient knowledge from science to art to politics to literature. Philosophy Professor Ken Taylor talks about the philosophical concept of normativity and what makes human beings "norm-mongering" creatures. Professor of English Terry Castle talks about the history of the novel in England and how the form has evolved over time.

Stanford Professor of Film and Media Studies Scott Bukatman talks about the cultural significance of comics especially in current times. Assistant Professor of Comparative Literature and of Medicine Alvan Ikoku argues that Medical Humanities occurs at the intersection of critical inquiry, humanistic expression, and medical practice. Humanistic inquiry is essential to all who practice medicine from the surgeon to the social worker.

Since humans have been able, we have used philosophy, literature, religion, art, music, history and language to understand and record our world. These modes of expression have become some of the subjects that traditionally fall under the humanities umbrella. Knowledge of these records of human experience gives us the opportunity to feel a sense of connection to those who have come before us, as well as to our contemporaries. The Art and Art History Department offers courses of study in the history of art, the practice of studio art, and film and media studies.

The undergraduate program is designed to help students think critically about the visual arts and visual culture. The courses focus on the meaning of images and media, and their historical development, roles in society, and relationships to disciplines other such as literature, music, and philosophy.

Stanford Classics is at the forefront of the study of the ancient Mediterranean world, its languages, history, and cultures. One of the largest and most diverse Classics programs in the country, we are an intellectually vibrant community of 21 full-time faculty, more than 30 graduate students, and over 50 undergraduate majors and minors. View the Classics brochure. While it seeks to prepare its students for reading and research in the languages and histories of different societies and periods, it is also dedicated to their critical and cultural analysis.

Literary theory in all its forms helps to break down the borders between national literary fields, as well as between literary studies and other disciplines. Indeed, the discipline of Comparative Literature asks, often, just what "literature" is, and how it functions as a product of and response to our imaginations, our languages, and our social and economic lives.

Students in our courses, majors in the department, and graduate students in the Ph. The French and Italian Department at Stanford has a unique profile among American departments of Romance languages and literatures. This commitment to interdisciplinary work can be seen in the profiles of our faculty, whose training and teaching encompass psychology, anthropology, art history, continental philosophy, and analytic philosophy along with their literary expertise.

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It can also be seen in the variety of programs run by or in conjunction with the Department. This long tradition of interrogating the relationship between literature and other cultural domains gives French and Italian at Stanford a particularly sharp perspective on the importance of literary studies today.

The Department of German Studies offers a variety of programs in German language and linguistics, literature, culture, and thought. At the same time, the interdisciplinary study of German culture, which can include art, history, literature, media theory, philosophy, and political science, encourages students to evaluate broader and contradictory legacies of modernity, such as how the literary, artistic, and cultural responses to the belated and rapid modernization of Germany allow for reflection on the modern condition in general.

An education in German Studies not only encourages the student to consider the effects of German-speaking thinkers and artists on the modern world, but also provides a lens through which the contours of the present and past can be evaluated.

The Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures offers a coordinated study of Russian language and literature, literary and cultural history, and literary theory. Improving cultural understanding is a critical part of the department's mission, and we offer a range of courses at all levels, devoted to Russian literature, music and visual arts that do not require specialized knowledge. Stanford students are in a privileged position in relation to Russian and, more broadly, East European and Eurasian Studies, because of our tremendous faculty and library resources.

Our students master a difficult language and a rich and challenging literature, and are rewarded by gaining entry into a unique, powerful, and diverse civilization that defined major trends in the past century and continues to play an increasingly significant role in the world today.

The Department balances an emphasis on literary studies with a more diverse, humanistic set of approaches to cultural and social issues. The Department is committed to provide students with a contextualized knowledge of the literatures and cultures of the Iberian Peninsula from the Middle Ages to the present, of the Spanish and Portuguese speaking countries of Latin America, and of the Spanish-speaking communities of the United States.

The Department of Asian Languages at Stanford is dedicated to the languages, literatures, linguistics and cultures of East Asia. The Department prepares students for B. It also offers an undergraduate and a Ph. The B.Humanitiesthose branches of knowledge that concern themselves with human beings and their culture or with analytic and critical methods of inquiry derived from an appreciation of human values and of the unique ability of the human spirit to express itself.

As a group of educational disciplinesthe humanities are distinguished in content and method from the physical and biological sciences and, somewhat less decisively, from the social sciences. The humanities include the study of all languages and literatures, the arts, historyand philosophy.

The humanities are sometimes organized as a school or administrative division in many colleges and universities in the United States. The word humanitas, although not the substance of its component disciplines, dropped out of common use in the later Middle Ages but underwent a flowering and a transformation in the Renaissance. By the 19th century, when the purview of the humanities expanded, the humanities had begun to take their identity not so much from their separation from the realm of the divine as from their exclusion of the material and methods of the maturing physical sciences, which tended to examine the world and its phenomena objectively, without reference to human meaning and purpose.

Contemporary conceptions of the humanities resemble earlier conceptions in that they propose a complete educational program based on the propagation of a self-sufficient system of human values. But they differ in that they also propose to distinguish the humanities from the social sciences as well as from the physical sciences, and in that they dispute among themselves as to whether an emphasis on the subject matter or on the methods of the humanities is most effectual in accomplishing this distinction.

Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Humanities scholarship. See Article History. Read More on This Topic. To will the good, one must first know it, and so there could be no true eloquence without wisdom. According to Leonardo Bruni, a leading…. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. The word humanitieswhich like the word umanisti derived from the Latin studia humanitatisis often used to designate the nonscientific scholarly disciplines: language, literature, rhetoric, philosophy, art history, and so forth.

Thus, it is customary to refer to scholars in these fields as humanists and to…. In the early Christian era the Greek paideia, called humanitas in Latin, served as a model for Christian….

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More About.Since the nineteenth century the humanities have generally been defined as the disciplines that investigate the expressions of the human mind. Such expressions include language, music, art, literature, theatre, and poetry. Thus, philology, linguistics, musicology, art history, literary studies, and theatre studies all belong to the realm of the humanities.


These decisions may involve the future direction of our economy, ways of broadening and strengthening education provision at all levels, or how we deal with the effects of climate or constitutional change… The humanities and social sciences teach us how people have created their world, and how they in turn are created by it.

The humanities use methods that are primarily critical, or speculative, and have a significant historical element—as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural sciences. The humanities include ancient and modern languages, literature, philosophy, religion, and visual and performing arts such as music and theatre. Areas that are sometimes regarded as social sciences and sometimes as humanities include history, archaeology, anthropology, area studies, communication studies, classical studies, law and linguistics….

The humanities and social sciences teach us how people have created their world, and how they in turn are created by it. The information provided about humanities and the different views was Awesome! These definitions where very well put together and very helpful.


Thank you for giving this great information on the humanities. I am currently a student in a Humanities class and these quotes are good perspective. The views of how this page broke down Humanities will be helpful for me to gain the understanding of just what Humanities consist of. I do believe we all interpret Humanities different, and i think that is ok. For me, i think of Humanities more along the lines of art and thinking.

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What makes us up as humans. Your email address will not be published. Here are five good, short definitions of the humanities. Congressional Act that created the National Endowment for the Humanities. Congress in June Press, To save this word, you'll need to log in. Bowers 2 a : the quality or state of being human joined together by their common humanity b humanities plural : human attributes or qualities his work has the ripeness of the 18th century, and its rough humanities — Pamela H.

These discoveries will be of benefit to all humanity. She was cut off from the rest of humanity. Send us feedback. See More First Known Use of humanity 14th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1 History and Etymology for humanity see human entry 1 Keep scrolling for more Learn More about humanity Share humanity Post the Definition of humanity to Facebook Share the Definition of humanity on Twitter Time Traveler for humanity.

See more words from the same century From the Editors at Merriam-Webster. Trending: After Dallas, lookups Trending: After Dallas, lookups increase for 'racism,' 'sniper,' 'divisive,' and more The words we looked up after a week of tragedy Dictionary Entries near humanity humaniora humanism humanitarian humanity humanize humankind human leukocyte antigen. Accessed 19 Apr. Keep scrolling for more More Definitions for humanity humanity.


Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible. What does capricious mean? Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! We have a hard decision to make. Or 'unessential'? And who put it there, anyway? Literally How to use a word that literally drives some people nuts. Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice?


Come look at pictures of baby animals. Can you correctly identify these flowers? Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Do you know the person or title these quotes describe? Login or Register.Related to humanities: Social sciences. Humans considered as a group; the human race. The languages and literatures of ancient Greece and Rome; the classics. Those branches of knowledge, such as philosophy, literature, and art, that are concerned with human thought and culture.

Switch to new thesaurus. Romantic MovementRomanticism - a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization; "Romanticism valued imagination and emotion over rationality".

English - the discipline that studies the English language and literature. Occidentalism - the scholarly knowledge of western cultures and languages and people. Oriental StudiesOrientalism - the scholarly knowledge of Asian cultures and languages and people.

Sinology - the study of Chinese history and language and culture. Mentioned in? Anthropocene anthroposophical medicine antihuman Apollinarian -art art history bailiwick beaux arts book lover bookman charity Circumvolant classicalism classicism Confucianism crime against humanity DH dispensationalism Doctor of Humanities. References in classic literature? A genial centenarian, whose years have told happily on him, he appreciates not only those humanities of feeling and habit which were peculiar to the last century and passed away with it, but also that permanent humanity which has but undergone a change of surface in the new world of our own, wholly different though it may look.

View in context. Humanities on the Road is one of Nevada Humanities longest running programs and is a roster of carefully selected creative thinkers who will travel across Nevada to bring engaging public presentations to local communities. This collection of essays explores connections between intersectional feminism and digital humanities. Material is in sections on materiality, values, embodiment, affect, labor, and situatedness.

But even in a world powered by technology, the notion that graduates in humanities are inferior has no legs to stand on. Without human touch, Information Technology is nothing. In what was a university-style lecture, the professor explored what the study of humanities entails, incorporating references to literature, philosophy and even science to make his point.

Inspirational lecture by visiting professor. According to the report from CNA, a primary concern of students was how the university would further enrich and develop its programs in the humanities.

Students at Nat. Taiwan University express concern for humanities programs. The goal of Humanities Commons is to provide a place where humanists can discuss, share, and store their teaching and research. Oh, the humanities! Creating community with the humanities commons. Oman's minister opens meeting on humanities research.